The education system in Germany is a clear structure: three stages of schooling and the final stage is the highest. At the middle and high school levels, there are both public and private institutions. Free education in Germany is provided at all levels.
Kindergartens in Germany are mostly private and not included in the overall educational system. Preschools are more focused on the organization of children’s leisure than to prepare for school. Basically, the schedule of work of kindergartens is limited to the first half of the day. If the institution provides services and in the evening, parents take kids home for lunch, then return to the garden, because the provision of hot meals are not provided.
The system of preschool education in Germany is aimed at children in a consistent and creative thinking, the foundations of musical literacy and physical development. In kindergartens, the kids dismantled the funny tests with a logical component and learning how to express their thoughts, draw, do arts and crafts. The diploma of German children to school do not teach.
The criterion of readiness for schooling is not a child’s ability to write and quick to read, and age-appropriate social maturity: the ability of a child to understand and perform tasks with their comrades, to comply with game rules, to focus on the educational process, to submit to the common discipline and to follow through.
In the system of school education in Germany, the teachers believe that the ignorance of the letters and basic grammar to children does not matter – in front of a school that’ll teach it. Worse, when a first grader will not be psychologically ready for higher level learning. If the little man is not prepared, in school, he could turn into a difficult student, which will suffer not only teachers but also parents.
Children under the age need for their age level, can catch up in preschool classes (Vorklassen) and school playgrounds or kindergartens (Schulkindergärten).
In six years, the children go to school. Study in Junior high lasts from 4 to 6 years: Brandenburg and Berlin up to 12 years. The first 2 years the subjects are taught holistically: knowledge from different fields are taught within a single discipline. The rating level set in the third grade.
In the German education system, private schools make up only 5 % of the total number of secondary schools.
Depending on the progress, abilities and temperament in the last grades of primary school teachers recommend that parents and students some direction in middle school, which contains two steps:
- I – 10 class
- II – 11-13 classes.
The German system of education provides several options for secondary school teaching:
- Basic – five-year training gives you the opportunity to obtain further vocational education.
- Real – studies lasts for 6 years, a high point at the end is a pass in high school and then in College.
- Gymnasium – training takes 8-9 years. The student selects profile education – Humanities, social or technical. The first direction focused on the languages, literature and art, the second – on the social Sciences, third in mathematics, engineering and natural Sciences.
Upon completion of training in the gymnasium, students receive the Abitur diploma. This level of secondary education equivalent to a domestic certificate and the certificate of A-level taken in the UK. The study is focused on preparation for entering universities.
- Total – six-year study combines features of real and secondary education and is conducted in the Humanities and technical disciplines at the same time. It is considered preferable for those who are not confident in their abilities and have not decided on their future profession. Once complete, you can enroll in a vocational school or to continue their studies in high school.
Secondary education second stage give only school in the 11-12 school. Students 13th (Abitur) is the graduates. They pass final exams and are enrolled in universities.
The German higher education system comprises higher educational establishments of different types and forms of ownership. Depending on the specialization and University period of study is from 4 to 10 years, in private institutions – from 3 to 5 years.
Higher education in Germany can be obtained from:
- in the universities;
- special institutions – medical, educational and other;
- schools of music and arts;
- schools of applied Sciences;
- professional academies.
University education in Germany is divided into two stages:
- basic & 3-4 semester upon completion are awarded the degree of licentiate;
- basic – 4-6 semesters, on completion, receive a master’s degree, for students of technical directions of a specialist.
Very popular in the German education system are high school. In them the students study under the reduced program. For 3-4 years students gain knowledge in engineering, medicine, management, computer industry, Economics, agriculture, etc. High schools in Germany have the right to issue diplomas of the level of “doctor” with awarding the academic degree.
In professional academies, it is possible to form a so-called third level. Study combine with industrial activity. Upon completion of the course, graduates are awarded a bachelor’s degree, which can be employed in most sectors of business or industry. The training lasts 3 years, two of which – the main study and one professional.
In Germany more than 440 universities, only 79 of them private.
The basic principle of the higher education system in Germany, academic freedom. The universities are Autonomous institutions, which provide each student a certain amount of autonomy. It may not take classes together with fellow students – it is sufficient to choose a specific specialization and relevant University programs to plan and allocate time for the development of the established level of knowledge, attending lectures, workshops, training, colloquia. The majority of Germans and foreigners fails to meet the standard training period, so sometimes they spend in universities and ten years.
Recently in Germany a proliferation of methods of professional learning in which students gain theoretical knowledge in school and practical skills, working on the company-employer. This is a dual system of education. According to the Conference of land Ministers of culture, approximately 60% of the graduates of the German schools of different levels prefer to continue studies in the system of the Duales Studium.
The list of professions that can be purchased as dual education fixed at the level of laws. A total of about 350 specialties – ranging from sellers, cooks and electricians, to IT specialists and technicians of heating installations or air conditioning.
Duales Studium lasts 2-3 years. During this time 3-4 days a student working in a firm with which it signed the contract. Part of the learning process can take place abroad. Young professional in Germany you can’t ask them to run the post office or make coffee. The employer is required to give solely those instructions and tasks that intersect with the study of his chosen profession.
Students receive a stipend. Each year its size increases in accordance with the accumulated amount of experience and knowledge. Some employers pay additional costs for the ticket, buy the books, rent a room, rent-a notebook and the like. At the end of the course seems to state, in case of failure, it can be twice to retake.
Dual education has a number of advantages:
- practical skills and experience from the first minute of training;
- high probability upon graduation, to place the company, which provided practical training.